The focus of my lab is in the area of multispecies pain assessment and welfare. These overlapping themes form the basis of our clinical and lab-based research. Our lab-based work is centred on the development and application of novel tools for the assessment of behaviours associated with pain in rodents. To date, these have included the Rat Grimace Scale (developed by the Mogil Lab at McGill) and ultrasonic vocalisations. We anticipate that these and other tools will allow us a greater understanding of pain behaviour in laboratory species, with clear implications for welfare. Much of what we do is guided by the 3Rs. Our clinical work is focused on optimal recovery from surgical procedures while maintaining the appropriate provision of analgesia through the use of various composite measures pain scales. Little is currently known in veterinary medicine about the consequences of prolonged recoveries from anaesthesia and the optimal management of the host of contributing variables.